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Mon kingdoms ruled large sections of Burma from the 9th to the 11th, the 13th to the 16th, and again in the 18th centuries.
The first recorded kingdom that can undisputedly be attributed to the Mon people was Dvaravati, which prospered until around 1000 AD when their capital was sacked by the Khmer Empire and most of the inhabitants fled west to present-day Burma and eventually founded new kingdoms. These, too, eventually came under pressure from new ethnic groups arriving from the north.
About the same period, southward-migrating Burmans took over lands in central Myanmar once dominated by Pyu city-states and the Tai started trickling into South-East Asia. The Burman ( Bamar ) established the kingdom of Bagan. In 1057, Bagan defeated the Mon kingdom, capturing the Mon capital of Thaton and carrying off 30,000 Mon captives to Bagan.
After the fall of Bagan to the invading Mongols in 1287, the Mon, under Wareru an ethnic Tai, regained their independence and captured Martaban and Bago, thus virtually controlling their previously held territory.
A main body of ethnic Shan / Tai migration came in the 13th century after the fall of the Kingdom of Dali to the Mongol Empire and filled the void left by the fall of the Bagan kingdom in northern Burma forming a loose coalition of city-states . These successive waves of Bamar and Tai groups slowly eroded the Mon kingdoms, and the next 200 years witnessed incessant warfare between the Mon and the Burmese, but the Mon managed to retain their independence until 1539. The last independent Mon kingdom fell to the Burmese when Alaungpaya razed Bago in 1757. Many of the Mon were killed, while others fled to Thailand.
 List of Mon monarchs
Mon monarchs ruled lower Burma from 1287 to 1539 with a brief revival during 1550-53.
|Mon name||Dates||BE||years||Succession||Death||Burmese||Pali||Other names|
|Wareru||1287-96||649||19||murdered||Magadu, Wa Roe, Warow, Wariru|
|Hkun Law||1296-1310||668||4||brother||murdered||Hkun Law||Tha-na-ran-bya-keit|
|Saw U||1310-24||672||13||nephew||murdered||Saw O||Theng-mhaing|
|Saw E Gan Gaung||1331||murdered|
|Banya E Law||1331-48||692||18||cousin||Binnya E Law|
|Binnya U||1348-83||710||37||son||natural death||Binnya U||Tsheng-phyu-sheng|
|Binnya Ram I||1426-46||788||20||brother||Binnyaran||Ramarajadhirat||Binnya Rankit|
|Banya Ken Dau||1450-53||812||3||cousin||Dhammatrailokyanatha||Banya Ken, Binya Keng, Banya Kyan|
|Baña Thau||1453-1472||815||7||abdicated||Shin Sawbu||Viharadevi|
|Dhammacedi||1472-92||822||31||son-in-law||natural death||Dammazedi||Ramadhipati||Dhammazedi, Damazedi, Dhammachedi, Dhammaceti|
|Binnya Ram II||1492-1526||853||35||son||Binnyaran|
|Smim Sawhtut||1550||usurper||murdered||Smim Sawhtut|
|Smim Htaw||1551-53||2||usurper||executed||Smim Htaw|
 See also
- Guillon, Emmanuel (tr. ed. James V. Di Crocco) (1999) The Mons: A civilization of Southeast Asia, Bangkok: The Siam Society.
- Harvey, G.E. (1925) History of Burma: From the earliest times to 10 March 1824 the beginning of the English conquest, New York: Longmans, Green, and Co.
- Phayre, Arthur Purves. History of Burma including Burma Proper, Pegu, Taungu,
- Tenasserim, and Arakan: From the Earliest Time to the End of the First War With British India. London: Trübner & Company. 1883; Reprint: Bibliotheca Orientalism, Bangkok: Orchid Press, 1998.
 Further reading
- "The Mon-pa Revisited: In Search of Mon." François Pommaret. In: Sacred Spaces and Powerful Places In Tibetan Culture: A Collection of Essays. (1999) Edited by Toni Huber, pp. 52-73. The Library of Tibetan Works and Archives, Dharamsala, H.P., India. ISBN 81-86470-22-0.