Wednesday, March 04, 2009

Mon kingdoms

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Jump to: navigation, search

Mon kingdoms ruled large sections of Burma from the 9th to the 11th, the 13th to the 16th, and again in the 18th centuries.

The first recorded kingdom that can undisputedly be attributed to the Mon people was Dvaravati, which prospered until around 1000 AD when their capital was sacked by the Khmer Empire and most of the inhabitants fled west to present-day Burma and eventually founded new kingdoms. These, too, eventually came under pressure from new ethnic groups arriving from the north.

About the same period, southward-migrating Burmans took over lands in central Myanmar once dominated by Pyu city-states and the Tai started trickling into South-East Asia. The Burman ( Bamar ) established the kingdom of Bagan. In 1057, Bagan defeated the Mon kingdom, capturing the Mon capital of Thaton and carrying off 30,000 Mon captives to Bagan.

After the fall of Bagan to the invading Mongols in 1287, the Mon, under Wareru an ethnic Tai, regained their independence and captured Martaban and Bago, thus virtually controlling their previously held territory.

A main body of ethnic Shan / Tai migration came in the 13th century after the fall of the Kingdom of Dali to the Mongol Empire and filled the void left by the fall of the Bagan kingdom in northern Burma forming a loose coalition of city-states . These successive waves of Bamar and Tai groups slowly eroded the Mon kingdoms, and the next 200 years witnessed incessant warfare between the Mon and the Burmese, but the Mon managed to retain their independence until 1539. The last independent Mon kingdom fell to the Burmese when Alaungpaya razed Bago in 1757. Many of the Mon were killed, while others fled to Thailand.



[edit] List of Mon monarchs

Mon monarchs ruled lower Burma from 1287 to 1539 with a brief revival during 1550-53.

Mon name Dates BE years Succession Death Burmese Pali Other names
Wareru 1287-96 649 19

Magadu, Wa Roe, Warow, Wariru
Hkun Law 1296-1310 668 4 brother murdered Hkun Law
Saw U 1310-24 672 13 nephew murdered Saw O
Saw Zein 1324-31 685 7 brother murdered

Zein Pun 1331

murderer murdered

Saw E Gan Gaung 1331


Banya E Law 1331-48 692 18 cousin
Binnya E Law

Binnya U 1348-83 710 37 son natural death Binnya U
Rajadhirat 1383-1421 747 39 son accident Razadarit
Binnya Nwe
Banya Dhamraja 1423-26 785 3 son murdered Binnyadammayaza

Binnya Ram I 1426-46 788 20 brother
Binnyaran Ramarajadhirat Binnya Rankit
Banyabarow 1446-50 808 4 nephew
Binnyawaru Jayaddisarajadhirat Banyabarvor,
Banya Ken Dau 1450-53 812 3 cousin

Dhammatrailokyanatha Banya Ken, Binya Keng, Banya Kyan
Mawdaw 1453 815

Baña Thau 1453-1472 815 7
abdicated Shin Sawbu Viharadevi
Dhammacedi 1472-92 822 31 son-in-law natural death Dammazedi Ramadhipati Dhammazedi, Damazedi, Dhammachedi, Dhammaceti
Binnya Ram II 1492-1526 853 35 son
Takayutpi 1526-39 888 14 son
Smim Sawhtut 1550

usurper murdered Smim Sawhtut
Smim Htaw 1551-53
2 usurper executed Smim Htaw

[edit] See also

[edit] References

  • Guillon, Emmanuel (tr. ed. James V. Di Crocco) (1999) The Mons: A civilization of Southeast Asia, Bangkok: The Siam Society.
  • Harvey, G.E. (1925) History of Burma: From the earliest times to 10 March 1824 the beginning of the English conquest, New York: Longmans, Green, and Co.
  • Phayre, Arthur Purves. History of Burma including Burma Proper, Pegu, Taungu,
  • Tenasserim, and Arakan: From the Earliest Time to the End of the First War With British India. London: Trübner & Company. 1883; Reprint: Bibliotheca Orientalism, Bangkok: Orchid Press, 1998.

[edit] Further reading

  • "The Mon-pa Revisited: In Search of Mon." François Pommaret. In: Sacred Spaces and Powerful Places In Tibetan Culture: A Collection of Essays. (1999) Edited by Toni Huber, pp. 52-73. The Library of Tibetan Works and Archives, Dharamsala, H.P., India. ISBN 81-86470-22-0.

No comments: